Science 122
Learning Outcomes & Questions

Here are the learning outcomes for each lesson.

Before you begin to study the lesson, take a few minutes to read the learning outcomes and the questions for each lesson. Focusing on the learning outcomes will help you to study and understand the important concepts.Look for key words and ideas as you read. Use the study guide and follow it as you take notes in class. Compare the learning outcomes with the study questions for the lesson to be sure that you have the concepts under control.

Some students find it helpful to make a note in the margin which pertains to a particular learning outcome or a study question.

Click on the lesson number below

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 30


1. Introduction

Learning Outcomes

1.1.1. Understand the structure of this course
1.1.2. Become familiar with course policies and responsibilities

Questions

1.2.1. What is the difference between synthesis and analysis?
1.2.2. Why do we call this course "The Nature of Science?"
1.2.3. Discuss any two themes of this course?
1.2.4. What are the requirements for completing this course?


2. Physical Science

Learning Outcomes

2.1.1. Distinguish between the concepts of synthesis and analysis
2.1.2. Learn to synthesize information from various sources.
2.1.3. Understand the humanistic nature of science
2.1.4. Understand the strengths and limitations of science.
2.1.5. Discuss the meaning and context of parsimony and reductionism.
2.1.6. Discuss the concept of a scientific method and explain how it does or does not work.
2.1.7. Name and discuss in writing three underlying ideals of science.
2.1.8. Distinguish between the qualitative and the quantitative and cite examples of each.
2.1.9. Write a short exposition which demonstrates comprehension and assimilation of the following topics

2.1.9.1. Synthesis and Analysis
2.1.9.2. What is science?
2.1.9.3. .Science and Human Nature
2.1.9.4. The Ideals of Science
2.1.9.5. The Limitations of Science
2.1.9.6. Why Study Science?

Questions

2.2.1. What is science?
2.2.2. What does science have in common with other types of human activities? How does it differ?
2.2.3. Discuss the three ideals of science.
2.2.4. What is the Principle of Parsimony (Ockham's Razor?)
2.2.5. What is the “scientific method?”
2.2.6. Distinguish between quantitative and qualitative analysis.
2.2.7. Is it unreasonable for us to expect that physical laws be universal in space and time?
2.2.8. What kinds of things is science not good for?
2.2.9. Describe some of the limitations of science?
2.2.10. Comment on Einstein’s statement, "It may be possible to describe everything in scientific terms, but it would be useless."
2.2.11. Why should nonscientists study science?
2.2.12. Discuss the concept of thought revolutions.
2.2.13. Comment on the relationships among the following words in the context of science: simplicity, elegance, truth, beauty
2.2.14. Relate parsimony and the use of models to the concept of reductionism.
2.2.15. Comment on the role of skepticism in science.


3. Paradigms & Perception

Learning Outcomes

3.1.1. Describe the relationship between perception and observation
3.1.2. Understand the role of experience and expectation in classifying information
3.1.3. Understand the nature of visual illusions.
3.1.4. Understand how paradigms make it possible for us to learn and store new information
3.1.5. Consider the distinction between paradigms and the world view of an individual and a culture
3.1.6. Examine the relationship between paradigm, metaphor, and model
3.1.7. Describe how science is influenced by paradigms like all other aspects of our uniquely human mind.

Questions

3.2.1. Define physical reality.
3.2.2. Comment on the statement: "The map is not the territory".
3.2.3. Present an example of a scientific paradigm and a nonscientific paradigm.
3.2.4. Discuss an example of a scientific model and its uses.
3.2.5. How does a paradigm influence perception? Give an example.
3.2.6. Why are we fooled by illusions?
3.2.7. How do we distinguish between illusion and reality?
3.2.8. Why do we create and rely upon paradigms?
3.2.9. Is the picture on the TV screen real?
3.2.10. Is the fact that Earth is flattened at the poles a significant contradiction to the “spherical Earth” paradigm? Explain.
3.2.11. Discuss the terms "world view", "model", "paradigm" specifically in the context of physical science.
3.2.12. Discuss the concept of political slogans in the context of paradigms
3.2.13. Compare and contrast the following in general terms: paradigm, metaphor, model, world view.
3.2.14. Is the image seen through a telescope real? How about the image formed on the retina by the lens of your eye?
3.2.15. Discuss the statement, “Sensitivity may be increased by knowledge.”
3.2.16. What is a paradigm?
3.2.17. Describe an optical illusion.
3.2.18. How do we know when something is real?
3.2.19. Define heliocentrism and geocentrism.
3.2.20. Tell a joke which involves a paradigm shift.


4. Earth in Space

Learning Outcome

4.1.1. Describe the different kinds of heavenly objects visible to us with the naked eye.
4.1.2. Define the celestial sphere and describe its motion.
4.1.3. Describe the nature of heavenly objects and their motions as observed with the naked eye.
4.1.4. Demonstrate understanding of the problems with distance and scale in studying the heavens.
4.1.5. Demonstrate understanding of how the relationship between the tilt of earth’s axis and seasonal changes
4.1.6. Demonstrate understanding of the motion of the planets as seen from Earth, especially retrograde motion.
4.1.7. Demonstrate understanding of the phases and motions of the moon and their relationship to the sun.
4.1.8. Distinguish between the appearance and nature of meteors, comets, and novas.

Questions

4.2.1. Describe the celestial sphere and its movement.
4.2.2. What kinds of objects and motions would one observe in the sky?
4.2.3. Why does the sun rise set in a different place each day?
4.2.4. Explain why days are short in the winter and long in the summer.
4.2.5. How does the location of sunrise and sunset vary throughout the year
4.2.6. If you had never seen a calendar and did not know the number of days in a year, how might you find out?
4.2.7. Draw a diagram which shows how the phases of the moon arise from the position of Earth, moon and sun.
4.2.8. Why does the moon rise fifty minutes later each day?
4.2.9. The word planet means "wanderer". Why were the planets given that name?
4.2.10. What is retrograde motion and in what objects is it observed?
4.2.11. Discuss the relationship between counting, numbers, and record keeping.
4.2.12. What is different about the retrograde motion of inferior planets and superior planets?
4.2.13. What is the difference in the appearance of meteors, comets and novae?


5. Beginnings

Learning Outcomes

5.1.1. Be prepared to write a brief and concise response to any of the questions for this lesson
5.1.2. Write short essays which demonstrate understanding and synthesis of the following concepts:

5.1.2.1. The Persistence of Geocentrism
5.1.2.2. The Human Brain, Language and Technology
5.1.2.3. Calendars, Causality and Mysticism
5.1.2.4. Rules of Arithmetic
5.1.2.5. Multiplication is Shorthand Addition
5.1.2.6. Advances in Mediterranean Mathematics
5.1.2.7. Nonwestern Astronomy

Questions

5.2.1. Why did early astronomers begin to keep records of the motions of the stars?
5.2.2. It has been said that Astronomy is the oldest scientific profession. Explain.
5.2.3. In what ways does the abstract brain figure into man's scientific and cultural development?
5.2.4. What effect did the development of language have on the growth of science and culture?
5.2.5. In what ways did the Egyptian culture and their calendar differ from the others of the early Mediterranean region?
5.2.6. Give an example of causality in nature.
5.2.7. What justification or rationale is there for the belief that our destiny is linked to the stars?
5.2.8. Why are there seven days in a week?
5.2.9. What is a Pythagorean Triple?
5.2.10. Discuss the statement: Multiplication is a shorthand method of addition.
5.2.11. Discuss the commutative rules of arithmetic.
5.2.12. Why did so few Sumerians know how to read and write?
5.2.13. What kinds of advancements were made in mathematics by the Sumerians and Babylonians.
5.2.14. Why is it difficult to develop an accurate calendar?
5.2.15. Distinguish between astronomy and astrology.
5.2.16. Discuss the statement: The reduction in the number of symbols of a written language is a technological advancement.
5.2.17. Briefly describe the astronomy of any non Western culture.
5.2.18. What and where is Stonehenge?


6. Pythagorean Mysticism

Learning Outcomes

6.1.1. Describe the bases of ancient Greek philosophy.
6.1.2. Describe the characteristics of the Greek world view regarding nature.
6.1.3. Write about the role of the supernatural in the Greek world view
6.1.4. Distinguish between purpose and principle
6.1.5. Describe the concept of numerical mysticism.
6.1.6. Write about the significance of numerical patterns and geometic shapes in nature.
6.1.7. Describe the relationship between symmetry and perfection.
6.1.8. Describe the structure of the Pythagorean universe.

Questions

6.2.1. Name and briefly describe the four schools of pre Socratic Greek philosopy.
6.2.2. What is meant by "Pythagorean Mysticism?"
6.2.3. Give an example of Pythagorean harmony.
6.2.4. Define symmetry and discuss the relationship between truth, simplicity, perfection and symmetry.
6.2.5. What is the Pythagorean theorem?
6.2.6. According to Pythagoras, what is the perfect symmetrical figure?
6.2.7. Describe and illustrate the Pythagorean universe.


7. The Golden Age

Learning Outcomes

7.1.1. Demonstrate mastery and synthesis of each of the following concepts

7.1.1.1. Socrates and Moral Philosophy
7.1.1.2. Plato's Cave Allegory and Plato's Question
7.1.1.3. Euxodos and Homocentric Spheres
7.1.1.4. The Philosophy of Aristotle
7.1.1.5. Aristotle's System of the World

Questions

7.2.1. What are moral principles? Describe one.
7.2.2. Why did Socrates think astronomy was a waste of time?
7.2.3. According to the allegory of Plato’s cave, what is the task of the philosopher?
7.2.4. What did Plato mean when he spoke of being 'reverse of blind'?
7.2.5. What did Plato mean by “saving the appearances?”
7.2.6. Why did the Greek philosophers insist that heavenly motions must be circular?
7.2.7. What is “Plato’s Question” and why is it relevant the study of science?
7.2.8. What is the “Prime Mover?”
7.2.9. What were the four prime substances of Aristotle? What is quintessence?
7.2.10. How did Aristotle’s system differ from Euxodus’


8. Hellenistic Greece

Learning Outcomes

8.1.1. Be prepared to write a brief and concise response to any of the questions for this lesson
8.1.2. Write a short essay tracing the development of geocentrism from Aristotle to Ptolemy
8.1.3. Describe the contributions made by each of the following:

8.1.3.1. Aristarchus
8.1.3.2. Eratosthenes
8.1.3.3. Euclid
8.1.3.4. Hipparchus
8.1.3.5. Ptolemy
8.1.4. Write a concise one or two page essay on any of the following topics:
8.1.4.1. Heliocentrism Rejected
8.1.4.2. The Size of the Earth
8.1.4.3. Elements of Geometry
8.1.4.4. The Astronomy of Hipparchus
8.1.4.5. The Ptolemaic System

8.1.5. Describe the workings of the Ptolemaic system and note how it differs from Aristotle's System of the World

Questions

8.2.1. If Alexandria is in Egypt, why do we call it Greek culture?
8.2.2. What is the significance of stellar parallax?
8.2.3. What principles and what methods did Eratosthenes use to measure the circumference of the earth.
8.2.4. What was Euclid's contribution to geometry.
8.2.5. In what ways is an axiom different from a theorem?
8.2.6. What did Hipparchus contribute to Hellenistic astronomy?
8.2.7. What did Ptolemy do?
8.2.8. What is the Ptolemaic system?
8.2.9. Compare and contrast the systems of Ptolemy and Aristotle.
8.2.10. What are devices as used by Ptolemy?
8.2.11. Distinguish between a "device" and a "tool".


9. Darkness & Dawn

Learning Outcomes

9.1.1. Be prepared to write a brief and concise response to any of the questionsfor this lesson.
9.1.2. Write a short essay which traces the influence of following on the thread of scientific heritage:

9.1.2.1. The Roman Empire
9.1.2.2. Early Christians
9.1.2.3. St. Augustine
9.1.2.4. The Monasteries

9.1.3. Write a short essay which describes the role of the Middle East during the "dark ages."
9.1.4. Write a short essay which explains the contributions of St. Thomas Aquinas in the context of "The Nature of Science."
9.1.5. Write a short essay which characterizes the Renaissance, especially as it relates to scientific knowledge.
9.1.6. Write a short essay which compares and contrasts Copernican and Ptolemaic astronomy.

Questions

9.2.1. In what way was the Roman approach to science different from the Classical Greeks and the Hellenistic Greeks.
9.2.2. How did the early Christians feel about the physical world.
9.2.3. What kinds of activities went on in Monasteries that contributed to the continuation of the Greek ideas?
9.2.4. What did St. Augustine (354-430) and St. Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274) do in relation to the growth of knowledge?
9.2.5. What factors necessitated reform of the Church dogma beginning around the 12th century?
9.2.6. What is Scholastic Philosophy?
9.2.7. What did the Arabic world contribute to the development of physical science in the middle ages?
9.2.8. Discuss the factors which led to the Renaissance of the 15th century.
9.2.9. What did Copernicus really do?
9.2.10. Compare and contrast the Copernican and Ptolemaic systems.
9.2.11. How was the heliocentric theory of Copernicus received by his contemporaries?
9.2.12. Who was Bruno and what were his crimes?


10. The New Astronomy

Learning Outcomes

10.1.1. Be prepared to write a brief and concise response to any of the questions for this lesson.
10.1.2. Describe the historical events relating to changes in world view which took place in the seventeenth century.
10.1.3. Demonstrate understanding of the importance of instruments and accuracy in formulating scientific theories
10.1.4. Discuss in a short essay the role and contributions of Tycho Brahe to Kepler's work in figuring out the planetary orbits.
10.1.5. Write a short essay which addresses the statement: Kepler was a Platonic Pythagorean.
10.1.6. Be able to illustrate the shapes of the conic sections and describe how they are produced.

Questions

10.2.1. Discuss the connections between the roles of Brahe and Kepler in the scientific revolution.
10.2.2. What were some of the major historical events of the sixteenth century?
10.2.3. What is the Tychonic theory and it what ways does it resemble the Ptolemaic and Copernican views.
10.2.4. What heavenly events occurred in this period and why did they present significant challenges to Aristotle's authority?
10.2.5. What did Galileo see with the telescope?
10.2.6. What was Kepler's lifelong ambition?
10.2.7. What are conic sections and why are they important in the physical sciences?
10.2.8. What did Kepler mean by the "music of the spheres"?
10.2.9. What is the significance of the Platonic solids in Kepler's theories?
10.2.10. What did Kepler discover about the orbit of Mars that caused him to question the circular paradigm?
10.2.11. Describe the following conic sections: Circle, ellipse, parabola, hyperbola


11. Kepler's Laws

Learning Outcomes

11.1.1. Relate Gilbert's treatise on magnetism to planetary motion
11.1.2. Demonstrate comprehension of the meaning and significance of Gilbert's new method of philosophizing
11.1.3. Demonstrate understanding of the contributions made by Francis Bacon
11.1.4. State Kepler's laws of planetary motion and use them to describe the motion of the planets around the sun.
11.1.5. Discuss the implications and significance of Kepler's laws of planetary motion

Questions

11.2.1. Describe the contributions of Gilbert and Bacon.
11.2.2. Draw an ellipse and label its parts: foci, major axis, semimajor axis, semiminor axis.
11.2.3. Define eccentricity. The draw two ellipses which demonstrate the concept.
11.2.4. Explain how you would draw an ellipse.
11.2.5. What are the conic sections and how are they relevant to the physical sciences?
11.2.6. What does it mean that a planet "sweeps equal areas in equal time?"
11.2.7. How are a planet's period and distance from the sun related? Use a numerical example.
11.2.8. A planet is 4 A.U. from the sun. How long is it's period of revolution. Earth is 1 A.U. from the sun.
11.2.9. Why are Kepler's Laws significant in the growth of science?
11.2.10. What did Kepler say was the cause of planetary motion? Explain.


12. Describing Motion

Learning Outcomes

12.1.1. Be prepared to write a brief and concise response to any of the questions for this lesson.
12.1.2. Write a short essay which demonstrates understanding of the basic premises of Scholastic Physics.
12.1.3. Demonstrate comprehension of Aristotle's view on motion by writing a short essay on the subject.
12.1.4. Demonstrate understanding of our modern description of motion by defining and distinguishing between the following terms: speed, velocity, average velocity, instantaneous velocity, acceleration
12.1.5. Recognize a linear graph and its characteristics and explain them in a short essay.
12.1.6. Describe the constant of proportion and cite several examples of linear relationships.
12.1.7. Describe the physical meaning of the slope and area of a graph of velocity and time.

Questions

12.2.1. Aristotle described four different types of motion. What were they?
12.2.2. What is the distinction between "violent" motion and "natural" motion?
12.2.3. According to Aristotle, what are the properties of motion?
12.2.4. What did Aristotle have to say in regards to falling objects?
12.2.5. According to Aristotle what would happen if a ball was dropped from the mast of a moving ship?
12.2.6. What arguments did Aristotle give against a moving Earth?
12.2.7. Define the following terms: speed, velocity, average velocity, instantaneous velocity, acceleration.
12.2.8. How might you know whether or not an object was being uniformly accelerated?
12.2.9. What does a constant of proportion do and how would you find one on a linear graph?
12.2.10. Explain the difference between velocity and acceleration.
12.2.11. How does a graph help us to understand motion?
12.2.12. What is the relationship between initial velocity, final velocity, and average velocity?
12.2.13. On a graph of velocity vs. time what is the meaning of slope and area.


13. The First Scientist

Learning Outcomes

13.1.1. Describe the major events in Galileo's life.
13.1.2. Discuss Galileo's sightings using the telescope and the significance of each.
13.1.3. Describe Galileo's use of the tools of logic, observation, mathematics, and experiment to synthesize a new paradigm.
13.1.4. Discuss the publications of Galileo with respect to the writing style and use of logic.
13.1.5. Clearly distinguish between inductive and deductive logic.
13.1.6. Describe the interaction between induction, deduction and experiment as a major factor in the scientific revolution.
13.1.7. Write a short essay which demonstrates understanding of the interactive role of induction, deduction, and observation.
13.1.8. Discuss the new ways in which Galileo used mathematics.
13.1.9. Describe the design and implementation of Galileo's experimental method.

Questions

13.2.1. What did Galileo see through the telescope and why did it convince him that the Copernican theory was correct and Aristotle was wrong?
13.2.2. How did Galileo's ideas about the physical universe change as he aged?
13.2.3. How did Galileo's questions differ from those of his Scholastic contemporaries?
13.2.4. Compare and contrast Galileo's views on motion with those of Aristotle.
13.2.5. Discuss and compare Aristotle's and Galileo's explanation of the motion of falling bodies.
13.2.6. What was the "crime of Galileo?"
13.2.7. Compare and contrast Galileo's methods with that of the Scholastics.
13.2.8. Discuss Galileo's use of Platonic dialogue.
13.2.9. What arguments did Galileo use against Aristotle's conjecture about falling objects?
13.2.10. What was it about Galileo's writings that irritated the Church?
13.2.11. What do we mean by the term "Certs/Miller Lite Dilemma?"
13.2.12. Distinguish between inductive and deductive logic.
13.2.13. How was Galileo's use of mathematics different than his predecessors?
13.2.14. Describe the features of Galileo's experiments.


14. The New Physics

Learning Outcomes

14.1.1. Discuss the ways in which Galileo argued against Aristotle's concept of freefall.
14.1.2. Describe Galileo's experiments with the inclined plane in terms of design, observations, data, analysis, and conclusions.
14.1.3. Demonstrate understanding of the principle of inertia and the methods Galileo used to derive it.
14.1.4. Compare and contrast Aristotle's concept of motion with the Galilean paradigm.
14.1.5. Describe the motion of a projectile in terms of inertia and freefall using Galileo's motion relationships.
14.1.6. Describe Galileo's use of inference, induction, deduction and idealized models in his analysis of projectile motion.

Questions

14.2.1. What did Galileo do that earned him the title "father of science?"
14.2.2. State and explain Galileo's Law of Freefall.
14.2.3. How would you know if something is uniformly accelerated?
14.2.4. How did Galileo discover the law of freefall with the inclined plane?
14.2.5. What is inertia and how did Galileo discover it?
14.2.6. State the principle of inertia.
14.2.7. How is the principle of inertia contrary to Aristotle's physics?
14.2.8. Why is Galileo's explanation of projectile motion more satisfying than Aristotle's?
14.2.9. Discuss the statement: "Galileo showed that an object could be obeying two different laws at the same time."


15. Newton & The Laws

Learning Outcomes

15.1.1. Describe the social and intellectual climate of the seventeen century in Europe in the context of science and philosophy.
15.1.2. Write a descriptive profile of Sir Isaac Newton which focuses on his role in the Scientific Revolution
15.1.3. Write a brief review of Newton's book Principia Mathematica Philolophis Naturalis.
15.1.4. Write a description of Newton's three laws of motion in your own words which demonstrates your understanding of them.
15.1.5. List several individuals outside of the physical sciences whose ideas were influenced by Newton and the Newtonian paradigm.

Questions

15.2.1. What was different in seventeenth century England where Newton was a hero, compared to Italy where Galileo was a criminal?
15.2.2. What is meant by the term, "Newtonian Synthesis"?
15.2.3. What is the Royal Society of London and why is it significant?
15.2.4. What factors contributed to the burst of creativity and learning in the seventeenth century?
15.2.5. What happened that gave Newton cause to publish Principia Mathematica Philolophis Naturalis
15.2.6. What did Newton say Principia accomplished. Use your own words.
15.2.7. What is a vector quantity?
15.2.8. Define "net force" in terms of vectors?
15.2.9. According to the Laws of Motion, if an object is moving in a straight line at a constant speed, what must be true about the forces acting on it?
15.2.10. What is the difference between Newton's first and second laws?
15.2.11. Explain the relationship between force and inertia. Use the laws of motion as examples.
15.2.12. What would be the result of doubling the net force on a given object.
15.2.13. What would happen if the mass of an accelerating object was reduced by one-half while for force on it remained the same?
15.2.14. A magician quickly pulls a tablecloth from beneath a setting of plates and glasses. Rather than falling to the floor and breaking they remain on the table. Explain.
15.2.15. What is the difference between centripetal and centrifugal force?
15.2.16. What is the reading on a scale which is being pulled on by two 5 Newton forces in opposite directions? Explain.
15.2.17. Use the Action/Reaction law to describe the forces acting in each of the following cases
15.2.17.1. a rock is spun rapidly at the end of a string
15.2.17.2. a car spins its wheels on loose gravel
15.2.17.3. a rubber ball is thrown and bounces off a concrete wall
15.2.18. Give two examples which illustrate Newton's third law of motion.


16. Gravity

Learning Outcomes

16.1.1. State the meaning and terms of Newton's law of universal gravitation
16.1.2. Describe how each of the elements of the Newtonian synthesis was used in formulating the law of gravity.
16.1.3. Describe Newton's use of creative problem solving in determining the direction, magnitude, physical nature and continuity of the gravitational force
16.1.4. Describe the methods used by Newton to test his theory of gravity using the moon's orbit.

Questions

16.2.1. In Newton's gravitational equation, define the terms and state the meaning of the equation in words.
16.2.2. What other physical quantities besides gravity show an inverse square relationship?
16.2.3. Discuss Newtons's use of logic in regards to the direction, magnitude, physical nature and continuity of the gravitational force.
16.2.4. What is the "distance" problem and what solution did Newton offer?
16.2.5. How would be the acceleration of gravity at a distance of 10 Earth radii from Earth's center compare with gravity at Earth's surface? At 60 Earth radii?
16.2.6. Discuss the role of Newton's laws of motion in the development of the Law of Universal Gravitation.
16.2.7. How did Newton use the moon to test his inverse square hypothesis?
16.2.8. Discuss the statement, "Projectile motion is a specialized case of orbital motion." Relate both to the conic sections.
16.2.9. What is the significance of Newton's use of the word, Universal, in his description of gravity.
16.2.10. According to the third law, how strong is the moon's gravitational pull on Earth compared with Earth's pull on the moon?
16.2.11. Discuss the statement, "Newton dealt the final blow to Aristotle's universe."


17. Gravitation

Learning Outcomes

17.1.1. Describe the way in which gravitation causes weight and weightlessness
17.1.2. Demonstrate understanding of the difference between inertial mass and gravitational mass
17.1.3. Explain how the gravitational interaction between the earth and the moon produces tides.
17.1.4. Define atmospheric pressure and explain it in gravitational terms.
17.1.5. Discuss the role of universal gravitation in understanding the motion of Halley's comet
17.1.6. Explain how bulging planetary equators arise from rotation of a planet
17.1.7. Discuss the similarities and difference in the motion of projectiles and satellites
17.1.8. Discuss the way in which universal gravitation was used to locate new planets
17.1.9. Describe how universal gravitation is used in interplanetary navigation
17.1.10. Discuss the experiment and its implications as performed by Cavendish to determine the mass of the earth

Questions

17.2.1. Why was Newton’s Universal Gravitation accepted so readily although there was no direct experimental confirmation of its validity?
17.2.2. What does it mean to say that Cavendish "weighed" the Earth?
17.2.3. Briefly describe three things which the Universal Theory of Gravitation explains.
17.2.4. Distinguish between mass and weight? Use Newton’s second law.
17.2.5. What would you experience inside an elevator which was in freefall?
17.2.6. Define two kinds of mass: gravitational mass; inertial mass.
17.2.7. How is the law of gravitation useful in studies of other planets, stars, and galaxies?


18. Momentum & Conservation

Learning Outcomes

18.1.1. Define the problem of the swinging balls
18.1.2. Discuss Newton's second law in relation to momentum and impulse
18.1.3. Define conservation of momentum and use it in an example.
18.1.4. Discuss the implications and importance of conservation of momentum and its relationship to symmetry.
18.1.5. Describe the variables used in the application of momentum to circular motion
18.1.6. Analyze the motion and interactions of the swinging balls in terms of conservation of momentum.

Questions

18.2.1. Conservation: Momentum

18.2.1.1. What is momentum?
18.2.1.2. How is momentum different from inertia?
18.2.1.3. Show how Newton's second law can be expressed in terms of momentum and time?
18.2.1.4. State the Law of Conservation of Momentum.
18.2.1.5. Is momentum conserved in all circumstances, for example when a bouncing ball comes to rest on the floor? Explain.
18.2.1.6. Explain how conservation of momentum follows logically from Newton's laws

18.2.2. Conservation and Symmetry

18.2.2.1. Give a general definition of a conservation law?
18.2.2.2. What is the relationship between conservation and symmetry?
18.2.2.3. Why are conservation laws important and useful in physical science?


19. Work & Energy

Learning Outcomes

19.1.1. Define the physical concept of work and apply it to various situations.
19.1.2. Distinguish between work and power.
19.1.3. Define kinetic energy and its variables.
19.1.4. Define potential energy and its variables.
19.1.5. State the work energy theorem and define its applications.
19.1.6. Define the characteristics of conservative and non conservative systems
19.1.7. Apply conservation of energy to various physical situations

Questions

19.2.1. Distinguish between work and power.
19.2.2. Define work as it is used in physical science and give an example of work.
19.2.3. Is work being done when a heavy weight is held motionless overhead? Explain.
19.2.4. How is power different from work or energy?
19.2.5. When we say that work is done by or against some agent, what do we mean? Name some "agents"
19.2.6. What do we mean by conservative forces? Cite some examples.
19.2.7. What is the work/energy theorem?
19.2.8. How is energy different from momentum and inertia?
19.2.9. Define energy?
19.2.10. What do we mean when we say, "The concept of energy would be useless if it were not conserved?"
19.2.11. Compare kinetic and potential energy using the appropriate physical quantities?
19.2.12. How do we know whether or not an object has energy?
19.2.13. Discuss conservation of energy using the pendulum as an example.
19.2.14. What do we mean when we speak of a "conservative system?"
19.2.15. How do we know that energy is conserved when an object falls under the influence of gravity in the absence of air friction?


20. Temperature & Heat

Learning Outcomes

20.1.1. Define temperature in both subjective and objective terms
20.1.2. Describe the principles of operation and construction of thermometers
20.1.3. Describe the relative nature of common temperature scales and conversions among them
20.1.4. Specify the difference between temperature and heat
20.1.5. Define specific heat and it’s relationship to temperature changes
20.1.6. Define latent heat and its relationship to changes of state
20.1.7. Describe methods of heat transfer and the conditions under which each is most effective.
20.1.8. Apply principles of heat and temperature to describe the physical aspects of homeostatis

Questions

20.2.1. Why are humans so concerned about temperature and its measurement?
20.2.2. Heat vs. Temperature Graph:

A sealed container contains ice at a temperature well below freezing. Heat is applied at a slow but constant rate. Sketch a graph which shows how the temperature of the container's contents changes over a long period of time as the heat is applied. Label the graph to indicate what is happening in the container.

20.2.3. What is a change of state and how does it relate to the study of heat?
20.2.4. Distinguish between latent heat and specific heat.
20.2.5. What is temperature and how is it measured?
20.2.6. Describe the relationship between temperature and heat
20.2.7. Describe the workings of a thermometer.
20.2.8. What are thermal properties of matter? Describe one.
20.2.9. How was the Celsius temperature scale devised?
20.2.10. Compare and contrast the Kelvin, Celsius and Farenheit scales.
20.2.11. Describe the three types of heat transfer and give an example of the conditions in which each is effective.


21. Mechanical Heat

Learning Outcomes

21.1.1. Describe the age old quandary concerning the nature of heat
21.1.2. Describe the properties of the caloric fluid
21.1.3. Detail the contributions of Joseph Black and Count Rumford to our understanding of heat
21.1.4. Define the mechanical equivalent of heat and discuss its significance.
21.1.5. Describe the experiments of James Joule which led to the modern concept of conservation of energy
21.1.6. Describe the types of energy known today and the types of transformations among them

Questions

21.2.1. Briefly describe two competing theories of heat which drove inquiry
21.2.2. Describe the relationship between temperature and heat
21.2.3. What did Joseph Black contribute to the study of heat?
21.2.4. What is calorimetry and how does it measure heat?
21.2.5. Discuss the statement: Calorimetry depends on the fact that heat is conserved.
21.2.6. What was caloric theory and what were the properties of caloric?
21.2.7. What characteristics do heat and energy have in common?
21.2.8. What is the meaning and significance of the term "mechanical equivalent of heat"?
21.2.9. Compare the contributions of Rumford and Joule to the development of the concept of heat as a form of energy?
21.2.10. How does the modern concept of conservation of energy differ from earlier ones?
21.2.11. Describe the three types of heat transfer and give an example of the conditions in which each is effective.


22. What's The Matter

Learning Outcomes

22.1.1. Distinguish between substance and element
22.1.2. Define matter and its distinguishing properties
22.1.3. Describe the classification of matter according to purity and separability
22.1.4. State the physical characteristics of three fundamental states of matter
22.1.5. Distinguish between chemical and physical changes

Questions

22.2.1. Define matter
22.2.2. What is a "substance"?
22.2.3. Discuss the separation and union of the concepts of atom and element.
22.2.4. Distinguish between the following pairs:

22.2.4.1. element/compound;
22.2.4.2. heterogeneous/homogeneous;
22.2.4.3. mixture/pure substance;
22.2.4.4. substance/element

22.2.5. Characterize each of the three states of matter in terms of volume and shape.
22.2.6. What are liquid crystals?
22.2.7. Distinguish between chemical and physical properties?
22.2.8. Describe two physical properties and two chemical properties
22.2.9. How can you distinguish between chemical change and physical change?
22.2.10. Describe two examples of a chemical change and a physical change.
22.2.11. Decide if each of the following is a chemical or physical change:

22.2.11.1. cooking an egg
22.2.11.2. rusting of iron
22.2.11.3. breaking of glass
22.2.11.4. melting of ice
22.2.11.5. fading of paint in the sun

22.2.12. Is heat always involved in a chemical reaction? In a physical reaction? Explain.
22.2.13. What is the difference between an exothermic reaction and an endothermic reaction?


23. Alchemy

Learning Outcomes

23.1.1. Describe and discuss the use of chemical technology among ancient peoples
23.1.2. List and describe the properties of the elements known to ancient civilizations
23.1.3. Describe the process of smelting ores and discuss the significance of the role of carbon in the process
23.1.4. Associate the seven ancient metals with the days of the week
23.1.5. Discuss the Greek concept of atoms and their rejection of it
23.1.6. Describe Aristotle's elements and the qualities associated with them
23.1.7. Discuss the mystical aspects of alchemy as models for folklore
23.1.8. Distinguish between Eastern and Western alchemy in terms of goals and methods
23.1.9. Describe the concept of the heirarchy of matter
23.1.10. Distinguish Aristotle's concept of elements from that of the alchemist
23.1.11. Describe the goals and objectives of alchemy in modern terms

Questions

23.2.1. Name and briefly describe some of the chemical skills possessed by the ancients?
23.2.2. Why was carbon an important substance to the ancients?
23.2.3. In Aristotle's scheme what is the relationship between elements and essential qualities of matter?
23.2.4. Why did the Greek philosophers reject the concept of atoms?
23.2.5. Discuss the relationship between atoms and elements.
23.2.6. What is the alchemical significance of the the number seven?
23.2.7. What is alchemy?
23.2.8. Compare and contrast alchemy in the Far East, the Middle East, in Greece, and in medieval Europe.
23.2.9. Why did alchemists believe that substances could become more noble?
23.2.10. Describe the goals and accomplishments of alchemy.
23.2.11. Were all alchemists charlatans or fools? Discuss the concept.
23.2.12. Discuss the difference between Aristotle’s concept of element and that of an alchemists?
23.2.13. In what ways does alchemy differ from chemistry?


24. Sceptical Chymists

Learning Outcomes

24.1.1. Characterize the transition from alchemy to chemistry through the concept of element
24.1.2. Compare and contrast the views on matter of Paracelsus, van Helmont and Boyle
24.1.3. Describe the phlogiston theory of combustion
24.1.4. Specify the contributions of Lavoisier to the chemical revolution
24.1.5. Describe the role of the battery in the discovery of chemical elements

Questions

24.2.1. Describe the major factors which led to a transition from alchemy to chemistry in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.
24.2.2. Who was Paracelsus and what did he contribute to the science of chemistry.
24.2.3. Who was van Helmont and why is he sometimes called "the First Chemist"
24.2.4. What did Robert Boyle contribute to our modern concept of “element”.
24.2.5. Simplify the distinction between the concept of element as envisioned by Aristotle, Alchemy, and Boyle
24.2.6. How did Boyle’s concept of “element” differ from that of Aristotle and from an alchemist’s?
24.2.7. What is phlogiston and what were its properties thought to be?
24.2.8. Why was Lavoisier’s weighing of substances important?
24.2.9. Why is Lavoisier remembered as the "father" of chemistry?
24.2.10. How did Lavoisier determine that a substance was not an element?
24.2.11. Who discovered oxygen, Priestly or Lavoisier? Explain.
24.2.12. Why was the invention of the battery important in the history of chemistry?
24.2.13. Who was Humphrey Davy, and what did he do?


25.Chemistry and Atomic Theory

Learning Outcomes

25.1.1. State five laws of chemistry and explain them using examples.
25.1.2. Correlate the hypotheses of Dalton's atomic theory with the laws of chemistry
25.1.3. State the law of combining volumes and cite some examples
25.1.4. Describe the controversy surrounding the law of combining volumes
25.1.5. Use Avagadro's law to reconcile atomic theory and the law of combining volumes
25.1.6. Show how the laws of chemistry can be used to determine the relative weights of atoms
25.1.7. Demonstrate knowledge of the rules for naming simple chemical compounds
25.1.8. Demonstrate understanding of the symbolic representation of chemical elements and compounds
25.1.9. Use the law of of conservation of mass to balance simple chemical equations

Questions

25.2.1. Laws of Chemistry

25.2.1.1. Name and describe the meaning of the three fundamental laws of chemistry?
25.2.1.1.1. Conservation of Mass, Constant Proportions, Multiple Proportions
25.2.1.2. Briefly describe the controversy surrounding Berthollet and Proust.
25.2.1.3. Compare and contrast the Law of Constant Proportions and the Law of Multiple Proportions.

25.2.2. Atomic Theory

25.2.2.1. Why did the Greek philosophers reject the original atomic theory of Democritus?
25.2.2.2. Discuss the relationship between the laws of chemistry and Dalton's atomic theory.
25.2.2.3. What is the difference between an atom and an element? Between an atom and a molecule?
25.2.2.4. Discuss the law of combining volumes and the controversy surrounding its acceptance.
25.2.2.5. What is Avagadro's hypothesis and how did it reconcile the law of combining volumes with Dalton’s atomic theory?
25.2.2.6. How does the modern concept of atoms differ from that of the ancient Greeks?
25.2.2.7. How do the laws of chemistry allow us to determine the relative atomic weights of the elements?
25.2.2.8. What is a gram molecular weight?
25.2.2.9. Use the periodic table to find the chemical symbols for the following elements: gold, silver, lead, potassium, sodium, silicon
25.2.2.10. How does the law of conservation of mass help in balancing chemical equations?
25.2.2.11. Why can we change the coefficients but not the subscripts in a chemical formula.
25.2.2.12. How much hydrogen will be required to completely react with 280 grams of nitrogen gas. How much ammonia will this reaction produce?


26. Kinetic Theory

Learning Outcomes

26.1.1. Define Pressure, Volume and Temperature.
26.1.2. Distinguish between pressure in liquids and gases.
26.1.3. Trace the history of the concept of air pressure.
26.1.4. State the gas laws of Boyle and Charles.
26.1.5. State the Ideal Gas Law and discuss its meaning.
26.1.6. State the assumptions of the kinetic theory of gases.
26.1.7. Discuss the thermal behavior of matter in the context of kinetic theory
26.1.8. Distinguish between heat and temperature using kinetic theory
26.1.9. Distinguish between the atomic order of the three states of matter.
26.1.10. Describe Brownian motion and use kinetic theory to explain it.

Questions

26.2.1. States of Matter & Gas Laws

26.2.1.1. In what ways do the molecules or atoms of a gas differ from those in a liquid or a solid?
26.2.1.2. State the ideal gas law, define the terms used and explain what it means.
26.2.1.3. Why is it necessary to use Kelvin temperature in the equation of state for a gas?
26.2.1.4. What is absolute zero and how is it measured?
26.2.1.5. What is an “ideal” gas. How do real gases differ from the ideal gas?
26.2.1.6. Is an object at 100 degrees Celsius twice as hot (contain twice as much heat) as an object at 50 degrees Celsius? Explain.

26.2.2. Kinetic Theory of Gases

26.2.2.1. What are the basic assumptions of the kinetic theory of gases?
26.2.2.2. Distinguish between translational, rotational and vibrational motion.
26.2.2.3. Define heat, temperature, kinetic energy, and pressure in terms of kinetic theory.
26.2.2.4. In terms of kinetic theory and conservation of energy, what happens to the latent heat involved in melting ice?
26.2.2.5. How does kinetic theory explain the cooling of water by evaporation?
26.2.2.6. What is Brownian motion and what does it have to do with atoms?


27. Electrical Connections

Learning Outcomes

27.1.1. Summarize the development of our modern understanding of electricity
27.1.2. Describe the fundamental characteristics of electric charges and the forces between them
27.1.3. Describe the principle behind selective absorption and filtration of light
27.1.4. Distinguish between discrete and continuous emission spectra
27.1.5. Describe the significance of spectroscopy and spectrographic signatures in the study of physical science
27.1.6. Describe the hydrogen spectrum define the terms used in the Balmer equation
27.1.7. Describe the nature of the problem presented by the Rydberg formula

Questions

27.2.1. Electricity

27.2.1.1. Describe the amber effect
27.2.1.2. Summarize the contributions of Gilbert and Franklin
27.2.1.3. State the law of conservation of charge
27.2.1.4. State the two basic properties of electric charges.
27.2.1.5. How do we know that there are only two kinds of charge?
27.2.1.6. Assuming that an object is charged, explain how you would determine whether the charge is positive or negative.
27.2.1.7. Briefly describe Faraday's law and its connection with chemistry.
27.2.1.8. Describe the principle of operation of a simple battery (voltaic pile).
27.2.1.9. Volta's invention of the battery revolutionized the study of electricity. Why?
27.2.1.10. State Couloumb's Law of Electric Force.
27.2.1.11. Describe some of the similarities and differences between electric forces and the gravitational forces.
27.2.1.12. Why is it that we don't normally notice the strong electric forces between charges?

27.2.2. Spectroscopy

27.2.2.1. What is spectroscopy?
27.2.2.2. What is the difference between a continuous and a discrete spectrum?
27.2.2.3. What are Fraunhofer lines?
27.2.2.4. Compare the emission and absorption spectrum of a gas such as hydrogen.

27.2.3. The Hydrogen Spectrum

27.2.3.1. What did Balmer discover about the hydrogen spectrum?
27.2.3.2. In the following formula, what does each of the terms represent?



28. Empty Atoms

Learning Outcomes

28.1.1. Describe the pieces of atoms discovered late in the nineteenth century and their properties.
28.1.2. Compare and contrast the fruit cake, nuclear, and Bohr models of the atom
28.1.3. Describe the salient features of Planck's quantum hypothesis
28.1.4. Describe the problems associated with photoelectric effect and Einstein's quantum solution
28.1.5. Describe the relationship between waves and matter at the quantum level
28.1.6. Describe the paradoxes and controversy surrounding the wave-particle duality

Questions

28.2.1. How are cathode rays produced, where do they come from, and what are their properties?
28.2.2. What significance did the discovery of the electron have for atomic theory?
28.2.3. What was the Fruit Cake model of the atom?
28.2.4. Name three types of radioactivity and list the characteristics of each.
28.2.5. What problems did the discovery of radioactivity cause for physical scientists?
28.2.6. How is the radioactivity of a substance such as uranium affected by chemical combination and heat?
28.2.7. What does it mean to say that Rutherford was the first of the "big" scientists?
28.2.8. On what evidence did Rutherford base his nuclear model for the atom?
28.2.9. In what way is the nuclear model of the atom inconsistent with electromagnetic theory?
28.2.10. Briefly describe the Photoelectric Effect and the problems it raises for the wave theory of light.
28.2.11. What is meant by a "quantum" of energy?
28.2.12. What did Millikan's oil drop experiment do?
28.2.13. How did Bohr solve the problem of the nuclear atom?
28.2.14. How is the Bohr atom different from Rutherford's nuclear atom?
28.2.15. Describe the relationship between the Bohr atom and the hydrogen spectrum.
28.2.16. Discuss the statement, "The atom is mostly empty space."


29. Periodicity & Bonding

Learning Outcomes

29.1.1. Summarize the major advances of the nineteenth century in chemistry and physics
29.1.2. Describe the concept of periodicity of properties
29.1.3. Describe the structure of the periodic table of the elements
29.1.4. Summarize the relationship between the periodic table, electron structure, and chemical properties, of the elements
29.1.5. Describe the physical nature of chemical bonds using the electronic shell structure of the atom as a model
29.1.6. Describe the various types of chemical and physical bonds in matter
29.1.7. Describe the unusual properties of water and explain them with the hydrogen bonding model
29.1.8. Define electrolyte and distinguish between strong and weak electrolytes at the molecular level
29.1.9. Describe the properties of ten important substances and ten categories of chemical compounds

Questions

29.2.1. List some of the advances in Chemistry and Physics in the nineteenth century
29.2.2. Describe and distinguish between chemical and physical properties of the elements.
29.2.3. What is the meaning of the terms "triads" and "octets" of elements?
29.2.4. Why was the associations of octets of elements initially ignored by the scientific community?
29.2.5. What made Mendeleev's periodic table better than Meyer's?
29.2.6. Why do we say that the periodic table "represents a significant leap in understanding of matter?"
29.2.7. What are the noble gases, and why did they remain undiscovered for such a long time?
29.2.8. What is the difference between the substances H and H2?
29.2.9. Compare and contrast the composition and properties of the following pairs of compounds:

29.2.9.1. water - ammonia
29.2.9.2. sodium chloride - potassium nitrate
29.2.9.3. methane - alcohol
29.2.9.4. methane - acetylene
29.2.9.5. alcohol - sugar
29.2.9.6. sulfuric acid - hydrochloric acid
29.2.9.7. sugar - sodium chloride

29.2.10. In what ways is water an unusual substance?
29.2.11. Define the following properties of water and note the importance of each.

29.2.11.1. liquidity
29.2.11.2. solvent ability
29.2.11.3. temperature - density relationships
29.2.11.4. specific heat
29.2.11.5. latent heat
29.2.11.6. surface tension

29.2.12. Define the term electrolyte and comment on the types of substances which have those properties.
29.2.13. Define the following: atomic number; atomic mass; ion
29.2.14. Discuss the statement: "Gain or loss of particular number of electrons is characteristic of a given atom."
29.2.15. What are isotopes?
29.2.16. Why are the numbers 2, 8, 18 "magic" numbers with respect to atoms?
29.2.17. Compare and contrast electron orbits around an atomic nucleus with planetary orbits around the sun.
29.2.18. Compare the properties of metals and nonmetals and their location in the periodic table.
29.2.19. What is meant by the terms "representative elements" and "transition elements"?
29.2.20. Why does it matter whether valence electrons in atoms are paired or unpaired?
29.2.21. What does it mean to say an atom "tends to achieve the octet?"
29.2.22. How can the periodic table be used to predict the reactions of representative elements?
29.2.23. What is ionic bonding and what types of elements form this kind of bond?
29.2.24. What is covalent bonding and how does it satisfy the octet principle?
29.2.25. Using the periodic table draw the Lewis pictures (electron dot diagrams) of the following atoms: H, C, N, O, Cl, Ar, S, Si
29.2.26. Compare the Lewis pictures of representative elements in the same column of the periodic table.
29.2.27. How is a covalent bond represented in a Lewis picture of a molecule?
29.2.28. Use Lewis pictures to describe the chemical reaction between hydrogen and oxygen to form water.
29.2.29. Describe the properties of a polar covalent bond.
29.2.30. Describe the electron structure of metallic bonds.
29.2.31. Use the theory of covalent bonds to explain the following:

29.2.31.1. inert gases
29.2.31.2. nonmetallic diatomic gases
29.2.31.3. crystals

29.2.31.4. transition metals vs soft metals
29.2.32. Use the theory of chemical bonding to explain the following:

29.2.32.1. solubility of polar substances in water
29.2.32.2. solubility of ionic substances in water
29.2.32.3. electrical conductivity of electrolyte solutions

29.2.33. What are weak electrolytes?
29.2.34. What is the characteristic ion in acid solutions? In basic solutions?
29.2.35. Distinguish between strong acids and weak acids.
29.2.36. Describe what happens when ammonia is dissolved in water and when carbon dioxide is dissolved in water>
29.2.37. Discuss the statement, Acid plus base yields salt plus water.
29.2.38. What is pH and how is it measured?
29.2.39. What factors determine the pH of a particular solution?


30. Entropy & Chaos

Learning Outcomes

30.1.1. Describe the incompleteness of the concept of energy conservation
30.1.2. Review the history of the mechanical theory of heat
30.1.3. Detail the contributions of Carnot and Clausius to the science of thermodynamics
30.1.4. Define entropy
30.1.5. State the laws of thermodynamics
30.1.6. Relate the concept of entropy to efficiency, order, probability, and kinetic theory
30.1.7. Describe the basics of the science of chaos

Questions

30.2.1. In what important way is the concept of conservation of energy incomplete?
30.2.2. State the laws of thermodynamics.
30.2.3. What is entropy?
30.2.4. Discuss the relationship between entropy, order, probability, and the arrow of time?
30.2.5. What prevents the molecules of air in a room from collecting in one place leaving a vacuum elsewhere?
30.2.6. Give a brief explanation for why a heat engine can never operate at 100 percent efficiency.
30.2.7. You decide to close the windows and open the refrigerator door on a hot day and let it cool the house. Is this a good thermodynamic strategy? Why or why not?
30.2.8. What is chaos?
30.2.9. How do equilibrium systems differ from non equilibrium systems?
30.2.10. What is the butterfly effect?